Federal Work Study and Assistantships
A student must complete a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and meet all qualifications set forth in the Federal Student Aid Handbook. A student must apply for Federal Work-Study positions, which are not guaranteed. Information on how to apply for opportunities is available on TCSPP’s website under Financial Aid.
At the beginning of each award year, a student applying for, or already employed in, a Federal Work-Study position must submit a Student Employment Eligibility Form online to the Office of Financial Aid for pre-approval. The Student Employment Eligibility Form, once approved, will confirm eligibility and indicate the specific dollar amount that can be earned within that academic year. Eligible first-time students using Federal Work-Study must also complete new employee paperwork through the Federal Work-Study Coordinator. Please see the Student Employment Handbook for further details regarding Federal Work-Study eligibility.
Student Employment provides on and off-campus positions. Many of these positions are paid in part by Federal funding through financial aid. Positions may involve working in an operations area such as student affairs, admissions, or facilities or within an academic department. Positions typically require 10 to 20 hours of work per week. Position types include:
- Teaching Assistantships
- Faculty Assistantships
- Research Assistantships
- Professional Assistantships
- Community Assistantships
Graduate assistantships offer a student part-time employment opportunities with the school to offset tuition and living expenses. A student is hired based upon their abilities to meet the requirements of the assistantship for which the student is applying. If eligible, a student is paid through the Federal Work-Study program (FWS) monies until those funds are exhausted by the institution. A non-eligible FWS student may also obtain graduate assistantships. A student may not work more than twenty (20) hours per week. A student may hold more than one position on campus so long as cumulative work does not exceed 20 hours per week. However, it is not encouraged that a student holds more than two (2) positions at the school. A student is required to submit a time sheet online for the work rendered for each position and comport in a manner consistent with the professional expectation of the student’s degree program. Failure to meet the expectation of an assistantship and or unprofessional comportment may result in referral to the student’s Department Chair/Lead Faculty for further review.
To apply for any Graduate Assistantship position, a student must file an application found online on TCSPP’s website and submit it to the department offering the assistantship. In addition, the student will complete a Student Employment Eligibility Form online to determine eligibility. If the student is eligible for federal work-study, the graduate assistantship position will be paid with federal work-study funds. If the student is not eligible for federal work-study, the student will be considered a part-time employee. Faculty Assistants will be paid on an hourly basis for their work. Part-time employee’s earnings are subject to appropriate income tax regulations. An international student in F-1 or J-1 status is eligible to apply for any on campus position that does not require Federal Work-Study eligibility. An international student sponsored in another visa status should consult with the visa sponsor regarding employment.
Because fellowships and scholarships do not constitute employment, a student who has these forms of aid may also hold assistantships up to twenty (20) hours per week.
Teaching Assistantship (TA) positions are affiliated with an academic program. The primary responsibilities of these positions include assisting faculty members in the delivery of a course through a variety of activities, such as grading papers, presenting in class, hosting discussion groups, answering student questions, distributing class materials, and so on.
A student must have completed the course or its equivalent prior to being eligible to apply for a teaching assistant position. The student should work with the academic program’s administration and human resources to apply for TA positions. TA positions are expected to work no more than ten (10) hours per week, but hours may vary based on the requirements of the course. TAs must coordinate their hours with the supervising faculty member.
Faculty Assistantships (FA) are positions designed to assist faculty members. In collaboration with human resources, FA’s are hired and supervised by program or administrative faculty members. The primary responsibilities of these positions include assisting faculty members in the management of their offices and duties through a variety of clerical (filing, scheduling, typing, photocopying, data entry) and focused research activities (collecting/summarizing articles, gathering information).
Research Assistantships are positions that may be affiliated with either an academic program or administrator in a nonacademic area of the school. In collaboration with human resources, Research Assistants are hired and supervised by the program faculty or administrator. The primary responsibilities of these positions include assisting faculty members in the design, execution, analysis, and dissemination of scholarly work.
Professional Assistantships are positions affiliated with the administrative areas of the institution. In collaboration with Human Resources, Professional Assistants are hired and supervised by administrators and staff employed by one of the school’s nonacademic departments or offices. The primary responsibilities for these positions include assisting in departmental operations through a variety of clerical (filing, scheduling, typing, photocopying, data entry), administrative (assist in managing the department or departmental projects), and focused research activities (collecting/summarizing articles, gathering information).
Community Assistantships are positions that support Community Service and Community-Based Research projects. In collaboration with Human Resources, Community Assistants are hired and supervised by faculty, administrators, or staff engaged in Community Service or Community-Based Research projects. For Community Service projects, a student works on designated assignments with partner agencies in the community, and is required to meet regularly on campus for professionally led, self-reflection seminars to heighten awareness of community needs and civic responsibility. Common projects include working in literacy, mentorship, outreach, and other human service programs. Community-Based Research involves the generation of scholarship on topics important to the school’s partner agencies. Under faculty leadership, the student seeks to discover new knowledge in order to improve the health and well-being of people in the community. Common Community-Based Research projects include needs analyses, organizational assessments, program developments and evaluations, and critical reviews of literature.
A student at TCSPP may fund academic studies either through self-pay or financial aid. Financial aid is any money used to help cover the costs of tuition, room and board, and other expenses. Financial Aid can consist of grants, loans and scholarships a student receives to help bridge the gap between a student’s resources and the amount needed to pay for the cost of attending school. The Office of Financial Aid’s policies and procedures are subject to change based on federal regulations and guidelines or interpretations thereof. Changes will be published. It is the student’s responsibility to remain informed of all changes.
The Office of Financial Aid adheres to the guidelines of ethical conduct developed by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA).
Determining Amount of Aid
Total financial assistance from all sources cannot exceed the school’s cost of attendance for the period in which an eligible student is enrolled. For Federal Financial Aid, the maximum eligibility for need-based aid, such as Federal Pell, Federal Direct Subsidized Loan, Federal Work-Study, and institutional aid, is determined by the difference between the cost of attendance at TCSPP and the federally calculated Expected Family Contribution (EFC) obtained from the FAFSA application. Resources such as outside scholarships and certain loan programs such as the Parent or Graduate PLUS Loan or alternative student loans are forms of non-need-based aid and are calculated in conjunction with federal need-based aid. Non-need-based aid may impact a student’s eligibility for need-based aid.
The cost of attendance includes tuition, fees, and averages of books, supplies, and reasonable cost of living expenses. A student with unusual but necessary expenses such as childcare, medical expenses not covered by insurance, etc., are reviewed individually upon the student’s written request to the Office of Financial Aid. Supporting documentation must accompany these requests. Qualification for a cost of attendance budget increase does not guarantee additional financial aid.
Disbursement of Financial Aid
Each term, a student who earns a scholarship and/or fellowships from TCSPP will have that award credited to the student’s account. Federal Direct student loan funds are normally transmitted to the school via Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT). Refunds through direct deposit or checks are made available to students within fourteen (14) calendar days of the credit occurring on the student’s account or within fourteen (14) calendar days of the student’s endorsement of a paper loan check. A student not enrolled for the number of credit hours that were estimated at the time of financial aid packaging may have funds delayed due to the need to recalculate eligibility. A student borrowing Federal Direct Loans for the first time at TCSPP is required to complete an entrance counseling session prior to the release of funds. Loan entrance counseling sessions may be completed online. Refund checks will be automatically mailed to a student at the current address on file with TCSPP. If the check is returned in the mail and a second mailing attempt is unsuccessful, the check will be voided and the funds returned to the program.
To receive Federal Financial Aid or to defer student loan repayment, a student must be enrolled in a degree or certificate-granting program at least half-time. Eligibility for scholarships or fellowships from TCSPP generally requires full-time enrollment. Enrollment requirements for other assistance programs, such as outside scholarships and private student loans, can vary and are reviewed on an individual basis as applicable. (See the Enrollment Status policy for additional information.)
Minimum Application Requirements
To be eligible for financial aid, the following requirements must be completed by the student.
- Complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA): TCSPP’s school code is B07022.
- Review and approve financial aid on ePortal.
Steps 3 and 4 are only required for students borrowing loans for the first time.
- Complete and e-sign the Master Promissory Note (MPN) at studentloans.gov
- Complete Entrance Counseling at studentloans.gov
A graduate student interested in the Graduate PLUS loan must complete a MPN and application. Additional information and requirements are available at studentloans.gov.
Repeated courses are financial aid eligible and will count toward full or half-time enrollment status only once. Courses repeated more than once neither qualify for financial aid nor are counted as a part of a student’s enrollment status. Some courses may be taken multiple times and are not considered a “repeated course” for purposes of this policy (dissertation, thesis, directed study projects). Please see the Repeated Course Exemption List for details. Questions regarding financial aid eligibility for a specific course number should be directed to the Office of Financial Aid prior to registration.
Satisfactory Academic Progress
A student must maintain satisfactory academic progress in order to maintain financial aid eligibility. (See the “Satisfactory Academic Progress ” section in Academic Policies and Procedures for additional information.)
Alumni Tuition Rate
Alumni of TCSPP who hold a bachelor’s degree or higher (excluding a nested master’s degree) may be eligible for the Alumni Tuition Rate. This rate has been established to support TCSPP alumni who enroll in a new degree program beginning Summer 2014 or thereafter who desire to enhance their academic and professional capabilities to best serve the diverse communities of the world.
The Alumni Tuition Rate is determined for each fiscal year and remains in effect for that year. The rate applies to future terms only and is not retroactive for current or prior terms. Changes in the Alumni Tuition Rate will be closely tied to any subsequent change in TCSPP’s published tuition rates. Alumni must meet the admission requirements of the desired program and must remain in academic good standing, meeting all Satisfactory Academic Progress requirements, to retain the rate.
The Alumni Tuition Rate may not be combined with a scholarship or other special tuition rates. Information on the Alumni Tuition Rate is available from the Office of Admissions at 1-800-721-8072.
Fellowships are awarded to an eligible, full or half-time degree-seeking student based on the individual’s potential to produce research and provide service consistent with the requirements of the fellowship being sought. In return for research and/or service, a student may be awarded a stipend that is posted directly to the student account. Fellowships cannot exceed a student’s cost of attendance as defined by Title IV regulations. Fellowships require the completion of an application and are awarded on a competitive basis. Fellowships can be terminated based on unsatisfactory performance in meeting the requirements of the fellowship and/or not maintaining satisfactory performance as defined by the student’s program of study. The school will not attempt to reclaim monies already credited to a student’s account; however, a student may be referred to the Department Chair/Lead Faculty if the fellowship is discontinued due to unprofessional behavior.
A student who receives outside fellowships will have those awards counted as part of the overall financial aid package. This may affect loan amounts, work-study, and/or other financial aid eligibility.
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology has allocated funds for grant aid that are used to support students to degree completion. There are a limited number of institutional grants available for students who meet certain criteria. To maintain grant eligibility, a student must remain in good academic standing.
Grants are available to new full-time students whose first term of enrollment is after the summer of 2014. The grant recipient must be a U.S. citizen.
A student who enrolls in the Master of Public Health program in spring 2015 or thereafter will be eligible for TCSPP’s Public Health grant. A student who enrolls in the Psy.D. in Clinical Psychology program in spring 2015 or thereafter will be eligible for the institution’s Clinical Psychology grant.
An international student who enrolls at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology is eligible for the International Student Grant.
Additional information on grants is available from the Office of Admission at 1-800-721-8072.
Law Enforcement Tuition Rate
A student employed as federal, state, or local law enforcement officers may be eligible for the Law Enforcement Tuition Rate. The rate has been established to support individuals who have dedicated their careers to public safety and service.
A student should identify membership to one of the aforementioned categories at the time of application. The rate is applied to future terms only and is not retroactive for current or prior terms. The applicant must submit a copy of a current ID and one of the following: a copy of a most recent earning statement or pay stub, a statement from the student’s commander or chief on official letterhead, or a statement from human resources attesting to current employment and position. A student may be required to resubmit documentation annually.
The Law Enforcement Tuition Rate may not be combined with other special tuition rates. Information on the Law Enforcement Tuition Rate is available from the Office of Financial Aid at 1-800-684-2890, option 1.
Mental and Behavioral Health Professionals Tuition Rate
The Mental and Behavioral Health Professionals Tuition Rate has been established to support mental and behavioral health professionals who enroll in a new degree program beginning Fall 2014 or thereafter who aim to better serve their clients and the community through advanced education and training.
The Mental and Behavioral Health Professionals Tuition Rate is determined for each fiscal year and remains in effect for that year. The rate applies to future terms only and is not retroactive to current or prior terms. Changes in the Mental and Behavioral Health Professionals Tuition Rate will be closely tied to any subsequent change in TCSPP’s published tuition rates, and the rate does not apply to institutional fees or other charges. Applicants must meet the admission requirements of the desired program and must remain in academic good standing, meeting all Satisfactory Academic Progress requirements, to retain the rate. A student may be required to resubmit documentation annually.
The Mental and Behavioral Health Professionals Tuition Rate may not be combined with a scholarship or other special tuition rates. Information on the Mental and Behavioral Health Professionals Tuition Rate is available from the Office of Admissions at 1-800-721-8072.
Military and Veteran Tuition Rate
Active duty personnel of the U.S. Military or National Guard and their spouses and dependents and Veterans of the U.S. Military or National Guard and their spouses and dependents may be eligible for the Military Tuition Rate. This rate has been established to support individuals who have dedicated themselves to serving in the United States armed forces.
Active duty personnel: A student should identify membership to one of the aforementioned categories at the time of application. The Military Tuition Rate is applied to future terms only and is not retroactive for current or prior terms. Military personnel must submit a copy of the most recent leave and earnings statement (LES) and a statement from the commanding officer on official letterhead. A student may be required to resubmit documentation annually.
Veterans: A student should identify membership to one of the aforementioned categories at the time of application. The Veteran Tuition Rate is applied to future terms only and is not retroactive for current or prior terms. A student receiving this benefit must submit a copy of the Veteran’s DD214.
A student utilizing the GI Bill must work closely with School Certifying Officials to make sure that all necessary documents are on file prior to the certification of enrollment with the Veterans Administration. TCSPP will certify enrollment each term unless otherwise notified.
The Military and Veteran Tuition Rate may not be combined with other special tuition rates. Information on the Military and Veteran Tuition Rate is available from the Office of Financial Aid at 1-800-684-2890, option 1.
Scholarships offered or administered by TCSPP are based on merit and/or financial need for full-time students. Scholarships cannot exceed the student’s cost of attendance as defined by Title IV regulations.
Outside scholarships that are not based on merit or need will be counted as part of the overall financial aid package toward the cost of attendance. Outside assistance may affect loan amounts, work-study, or other financial aid eligibility.
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology participates in the Title IV programs including Federal Pell, Federal Direct Loans, and Federal Work-Study.
The Office of Financial Aid is required to recalculate financial aid eligibility for students who withdraw from the institution, are administratively withdrawn, or are dismissed. A student who wishes to withdraw from the institution is required to notify the Office of the Registrar. If a student does not formally withdraw through the Office of the Registrar and fails to register for the upcoming term, the student will be administratively withdrawn.
A student who receives financial aid funds and completely withdraws from the institution is subject to the “Return of Title IV Funds” policy. The amount to be returned is based on the percentage of enrollment completed for the semester/term and the amount of financial assistance considered earned. The school and the student are both responsible to return unearned financial aid assistance to the appropriate Title IV program(s) in the order of Direct Unsubsidized, Direct Subsidized, Parent or Graduate PLUS, SEOG, PELL, where applicable. It is recommended that a student who receives financial aid connect with the Office of Financial Aid prior to withdrawing to determine if the student will leave the school with a balance on the student account. If a balance is owed to TCSPP, the student must immediately contact the Office of Student Accounts to make payment arrangements.
When a student who receives Title IV grant or loan assistance withdraws from the institution during payment period or period of enrollment in which the recipient began attendance, the institution must determine the amount of Title IV grant or loan assistance that the student earned as of the student’s withdrawal date. This may result in the student owing a balance to TCSPP.
Determination of Institutional Withdrawal Date
For official withdrawals, a student’s withdrawal date is:
- The date the student officially notified the school, in writing, of intent to withdraw, or
- Any earlier or later date which the school documents as the last date of academically related activity by the student
For unofficial withdrawals, a student’s withdrawal date is:
- The midpoint of the payment period or period of enrollment, or
- Any earlier or later date which the school documents as the last date of academically related activity by the student.
An academically-related activity includes, but is not limited to: an exam, attending class, submitting a class assignment, or attending a formal study group that is arranged by the school.
A student who takes an approved Leave of Absence (LOA) after the Add/Drop deadline of a semester/term is considered to have withdrawn in terms of financial aid and Return of Title IV policies. The student’s withdrawal date is the date the school determines the student began the Leave of Absence. A student who takes a Leave of Absence is subject to the same policies as a student who withdraws. Please refer to the Institutional Withdrawal section for details.
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology offers three (3) possible payment options to assist active students. The standard In-Term Payment Plan is designed for all students. Two additional options, Deferred Tuition Payment Plan and the Direct-Bill Payment Plan, are available for students who receive employer or third-party-based tuition reimbursement or assistance. There is no interest fee; however a late payment fee is incurred when payments are not made on time and will be charged monthly until the payment plan is current. A student wishing to pursue a payment plan must have all arrangements completed by the end of the first week of the semester/term.The school offers an Out of School Payment Plan for former students.
In Term Payment Plan (Standard)
Available through the Office of Student Accounts, the In-Term Payment Plan allows a student to pay an outstanding tuition balance in up to four monthly installments per semester or two installments per semester/term for online programs. All payment plans will be scheduled with a due date of the 15th of each month. There is no service charge for the payment plan option. A student who has not paid the full tuition or signed a payment plan by the end of the first week of classes will be assessed a late fee, unless the unpaid balance is due to approved financial aid funds that have not yet posted to the student’s account. A late payment fee will be charged monthly until the balance is paid or payment plan is current. A registration hold will be placed on the account until the account is made current. A student who elects to reduce the student loans to an amount that does not cover the full tuition and fee balance is eligible for payment plans. All payment plans must be pre-approved by the Office of Student Accounts.
An account is considered delinquent if the student has an outstanding balance for tuition or fee payments and is not participating in an approved payment plan. A late payment fee will be charged monthly until the balance is paid in full. A student with a valid payment plan and no past due balance is considered in good standing once the first payment is received. The student will not be subject to a billing hold or assessed a late fee as long as the student continues making on-time payments on the payment plan. A student who is five (5) days late in making a payment on the payment plan will be assessed a late fee and will have a hold placed on the account until the account balance is paid in full. If tuition is not paid in full by the next registration period, the student will not be permitted to register for the next semester/term.
Tuition and Fee Schedule available on the school website.
Deferred Tuition Payment Plan
A student receiving employer-based tuition reimbursement may be eligible to participate in the Deferred Tuition Payment Plan. An eligible student must be in good financial standing with the school. This plan is for a student who has tuition reimbursement plans for which payment is dependent upon a grade or completion of a course.
The student is responsible for submitting the Deferred Tuition Payment Plan application each academic year of enrollment in order to participate. The application fee for the Deferred Tuition Payment Plan is indicated on the application. The application requires a copy of the employer’s tuition reimbursement policy and a signed letter verifying the amount of the student’s reimbursement eligibility and any restrictions.
The balance due must be paid by the end of the second week of the next semester/term, regardless of whether or not the student has received the employer reimbursement or grades have been received. A registration and transcript hold and late fees will be issued to the student’s account if complete payment has not been made by the deferred tuition payment plan due date.
The Office of Student Accounts will assist with necessary documentation required for employer or third party reimbursement or assistance purposes.
While a student must submit the Deferred Tuition Payment Plan application no later than the last day of the first week of the semester/term, early submission is the best course of action.The Office of Student Accounts reserves the right to deny participation in the Deferred Tuition Payment Plan.
Direct Bill Payment Plan
A student who is eligible for partial or full-tuition payment by a third-party source may apply for the Direct Bill Payment Plan. A Direct Bill Payment Plan is not contingent upon a grade and/or completion of a course and is payable directly to TCSPP. A payment plan may be set up according to the employer policy.
Third-party billing sources may be: an employer, scholarship foundation, government (such as Americorps or Upward Mobility program) or military tuition assistance. A student must submit a payment voucher or letter that includes the name of the student and program, amount to be paid, payment method (check or credit card), and semester/term for which tuition is to be paid.
All vouchers or letters must be submitted to the Office of Student Accounts no later than the end of the first week of each semester/term. The student is responsible for establishing a secured payment method by the first week of the semester/term for the remaining balance not being paid by the third-party source.
Payments are due from the third-party source within thirty (30) calendar days of invoicing or else a registration and transcript hold and a late fee will be applied to the student’s account. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that all required documents are received by the third party and that payment is submitted in a timely manner.
Out of School Payment Plan
A former student no longer actively enrolled with the institution (inclusive of withdrawn, dismissed, or graduated) may owe a balance. If a balance remains on a student’s account, a final statement will be mailed. The former student may be eligible for an Out of School Payment Plan, but missed payments may result in cancellation of the payment plan and prevent the former student from future participation in this payment plan option. A service fee will be assessed if a payment plan is established. Official and unofficial transcripts and diplomas will not be released until the balance is paid in full. If the balance is not paid in full, a payment plan is not set up within 90 days of the withdrawal date, or the former student is past due on a payment plan, the balance will be sent to a collection agency. The institution reserves the right to cancel or not qualify a former student for a payment plan option.
Refund Policy and Schedule
Courses dropped during the Add/Drop period will be refunded 100% of tuition and course fees. Courses dropped after the Add/Drop period will be subject to a partial refund of tuition only, according to the refund schedule below.* Please note that adding or dropping courses may change the enrollment status, which may result in changes to financial aid.
The refund schedule week begins on Monday and ends on Sunday. Contact the Office of Student Accounts with questions.
*The study abroad program fee for courses is 100% non-refundable past the Add/Drop deadline of the on-ground semester, even if the study abroad course is scheduled to run in the second term of the semester, i.e. fall II, spring II, summer II. The field experience fee is 100% non-refundable after the student signs the international fee agreement, regardless of when the student may drop the course or withdraw from the program.
Drop/Withdrawal Refund Schedule
|Week 1 of Term
|Week 5 to End of Term
Drop/Withdrawal Refund Schedule
|Week 1 of Term
|Week 5 to End of Term
Drop/Withdrawal Refund Schedule
|Week 1 of Term
|Week 3 to End of Term
Drop/Withdrawal Refund Schedule
|Week 1 of Term
|Week 3 to End of Term
Active duty personnel of the U.S. Military or National Guard called into service prior to the completion of the semester/term, whether voluntarily or involuntarily, but not including active service for training, will be entitled to receive a full refund of tuition and fees. This same consideration may be available to spouses and dependents of active duty military personnel. A student who is drafted and must report for active duty during a semester/term is entitled to receive a full refund of tuition and fees. All refunds are subject to the presentation of official documentation. In the event a student receives any Title IV Federal Aid for education expenses, the institution will return those funds to the Department of Education. In those instances, if the student received funds in addition to those for tuition and fees, the student will be subject to the repayment of those funds. A student who volunteers for military service will be subject to the school’s standard Refund Schedule.
Tuition and Fee Payment
Tuition is due in full for all students before the last day of the first week of a new semester/term. This requirement will be waived if a student intends to use financial aid (including loans) to pay tuition in full and has completed all financial aid paperwork required prior to the start of the semester/term. Students may reduce the amount of tuition due the first week of the semester/term by completing a payment plan agreement with a Student Accounts Advisor prior to the start of the semester/term. Accounts with outstanding balances not covered by financial aid or a payment plan will be considered delinquent after the last day of the first week of each semester/term within a five-day grace period. A late payment fee will be charged each month until the balance has been paid or if the student is past due on a planned payment.
Tuition and Fee Schedule available on the school website.
During any phase of the program, a student whose account is delinquent must make satisfactory arrangements for payment with a Student Accounts Advisor or the student will be subject to removal from classes and withdrawal from the school. In accordance with TCSPP’s usual and customary readmission and reentry policies and procedures, a student who has been administratively withdrawn and who wishes to reenter must first pay all tuition and fees in full before applying for readmission or reentry. Readmission or reentry is not guaranteed.
A student with a delinquent account may not register for a subsequent semester/term, attend classes, begin or attend practicum or internship, work with faculty on a dissertation or thesis, defend a dissertation or thesis, or receive a transcript or diploma until all outstanding tuition and fees are paid in full. If a student’s practicum or internship is affected by a delinquent account, the student must immediately notify the site supervisor and meet with the Director of Applied Professional Practice to develop a plan to ensure that all clinical and professional responsibilities are identified and addressed.